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NoSQL, or Not Only SQL, refers to a category of database management systems that do not rely on traditional relational database structures. Designed to handle large volumes of unstructured or semi-structured data, NoSQL databases offer flexible schemas and are optimized for specific data models and application requirements. Key features include:

  1. Flexible Schemas: NoSQL databases support dynamic schemas, allowing for the storage of data without predefined structures. This makes it easier to adapt to changing data requirements.
  2. Scalability: They are designed for horizontal scaling, enabling the distribution of data across multiple servers to handle large amounts of data and high-traffic applications efficiently.
  3. Diverse Data Models: NoSQL databases support various data models, including document (e.g., MongoDB), key-value (e.g., Redis), column-family (e.g., Apache Cassandra), and graph (e.g., Neo4j), catering to different use cases.
  4. High Performance: By optimizing for specific data types and access patterns, NoSQL databases often deliver faster performance for read and write operations compared to traditional relational databases.
  5. Eventual Consistency: Many NoSQL databases use eventual consistency, which allows for higher availability and partition tolerance, making them suitable for distributed systems and applications with high availability requirements.
  6. Big Data Handling: NoSQL databases are well-suited for big data applications, providing the capability to store, process, and analyze vast amounts of data generated by modern applications.

NoSQL databases are widely used in scenarios where flexibility, scalability, and high performance are critical, such as real-time web applications, big data analytics, and IoT (Internet of Things) solutions.

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